In all of my Antarctic work I investigated the eco-physiological response of marine algae to stressful ecological interactions and environmental conditions to answer questions about [chemical] ecology and climate change. I measure physiology in a variety of ways including growth, calcification, photosynthesis (PAM fluorometry), mechanical strength, and chemical defenses.
Salm, J.L., K.M. Schoenrock, J.B. McClintock, C.D. Amsler, and B.J. Baker*. (2018) The Status of Marine Chemical Ecology in Antarctica: Form and Function of Unique High-Latitude Chemistry. In: Marine Natural Products and Chemical Ecology. Eds. M. Puglisi and K.L. Van Alstyne. CRC Press. Chapter 2: 27-69
Young, R.M., K.M. Schoenrock, J.L. von Salm, C.D. Amsler, and B.J. Baker*. (2015) Structure and Function of Macroalgal Natural Products. In: Natural Products from Marine Algae. Eds. D. Stengel and S. Connan. Springer, Berlin. pp. 39-73
I have also participate in identification of cryptic algal species from polar regions in collaboration with Dr. Paul Gabrielson.
Algal Symbioses The abundance of algal endophytes in Antarctic macroalgae was first described by Dr. Akira peters in 2003, and has been further investigated by Dr. Charles Amsler and his students. My contribution to this research included measuring physiological stress that endophytes put on their host (e.g. through measuring growth and photosynthesis), determining which hosts were negatively affected by these endophytes and further whether endophyte presence is uniform across species life-history stages. Schoenrock, K.M.*, C.D. Amsler, J.B. McClintock, and B.J. Baker. (2015) A comprehensive study of Antarctic algal symbioses: minimal impact of endophyte presence in most species of macroalgal hosts. European Journal of Phycology. 50 (3). 271-287. DOI:10.1080/09670262.2015.1031189
Schoenrock, K.M.*, C.D. Amsler, J.B. McClintock, B.J. Baker. (2015) Life history bias in endophyte infection of the Antarctic rhodophyte, Iridaea cordata. Botanica Marina, 58 (1). 1-8. DOI 10.1515/bot-2014-0085
Schoenrock, KM.*, C.D. Amsler, J.B. McClintock, and B.J. Baker (2013). Endophyte presence as a potential stressor on growth and survival in Antarctic macroalgal hosts. Phycologia, 52: 595-599
Climate Change Climate change is occurring at a rapid pace along the western Antarctic Peninsula, and many marine organisms are and may be affected. With Dr. Julie Schram, I look at the effect of ocean acidification and warming on common benthic marine organisms from the western Antarctic Peninsula. Over two years we used mesocosm and microcosm experiments to incubate these organisms and evaluate physiological response to manipulated oceanic conditions. I specifically looked at dominant canopy forming algae, the Desmarestiales, and the abundant crustose algae, corallines and a fleshy Hildenbrandia sp.
Schram, J.B.*, K.M. Schoenrock, J.B. McClintock, C.D. Amsler, and R.A. Angus. (2017) Ocean warming and acidification alter Antarctic macroalgal biochemical composition but not amphipod grazer feeding preferences. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 581:45-56
Schram, J.B.*, K.M. Schoenrock, J.B. McClintock, C.D. Amsler and R.A. Angus. (2016) Seawater acidification more than warming presents a challenge for two Antarctic macroalgal-associated amphipods. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 554:81-97
Schram, J.B.*, M.O. Amsler, C.D. Amsler, K.M. Schoenrock, J.B. McClintock, and R.A. Angus. (2016) Antarctic crustacean grazer assemblages exhibit resistance following exposure to decreased pH. Marine Biology, 163: 106. DOI 10.1007/s00227-016-2894-y
Schoenrock, K.M.*, J.B. Schram, C.D. Amsler, J.B. McClintock, R.A. Angus, and YK Vohra. (2016) Climate change confers a potential advantage to fleshy Antarctic crustose macroalgae over calcified species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 474: 58-66.
Schram, J.B.*, K.M. Schoenrock, J.B. McClintock, C.D. Amsler and R.A. Angus (2015). Testing Antarctic resilience: the effects of elevated seawater temperature and decreased pH on two gastropod species. ICES Journal of Marine Science. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsv233. 529-536
Schram, J.B.,* K.M. Schoenrock, J.B. McClintock, R.A. Angus, and C.D. Amsler. (2015) Multi-frequency observations of seawater carbonate-chemistry on the central coast of the western Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Research, 34, 25582. DOI: 10.3402/polar.v34.25582.
Schoenrock, K.M.*, J.B. Schram, C.D. Amsler, J.B. McClintock, and R.A. Angus. (2014) Climate change impacts on over-story Desmarestia spp. from the western Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Biology, 162 (2): 377-389. DOI 10.1007/s00227-014-2582-8 Schram, J.B.*, K.M. Schoenrock, J.B. McClintock, C.D. Amsler, R.A. Angus. (2014). Multiple stressor effects of near future elevated seawater temperature and decreased pH on righting and escape behaviors of two common Antarctic gastropods. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 457: 90-96
Invertebrate larval settlement Very little is know about the settlement dynamics of invertebrate larvae in Antarctica. These propagules are limited by seasonality of resources, abiotic stressors, and the biological community. I investigated interaction between coralline algae extracts, depth, and larval settlement along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Please contact me if you would like more information on those findings.